Rooting, Chewing, Scratching, Dominant, Submissive, Play, Exploratory
Pigs have a clear dominant, submissive relationship. The females have a matriarchal herd with sows and offspring. Males can be solitary unless grouped with their littermates.
Excessive Aggression, Pacing
gregarious, social, grazing, investigative, fleeing
Sheep have a flock instinct to protect each other from predators. Flocks consist of a couple males, multiple males and offspring. Ewes stay with the flock for life and males will wander forming other herds. Males will challenge other males for social dominance.
Grazing, playing, exploratory, walking
Horses live in herds. Dominance is controlling movement of peers. Herd consists of one to two stallions and a group of mares and foals. Leader is the older mare.
cribbing, weaving, stall kicking, wood chewing, self-biting, eating bedding
Foraging, Pecking, Exploratory, Roosting, Vocalizing, Dusting
Birds are highly social especially during breeding season.
Land birds can be less gregarious, seek isolation during breeding season.
Aggression, Feather Pecking, Cannibalism, Excessive, Fearfulness
Enrichment items that promote rooting such as large balls, edible enrichment such as hay, pecking opportunities such as foraging balls edible treats and noise making enrichment work best to exhibit their natural behaviors.
Featured studies related to refinement, enrichment, handling, behavior management, and training techniques.