exploratory, fleeing, shoaling, hiding
Zebrafish are social animals that aggregate together in groups. They prefer shoaling. Shoaling is behavior that is defined as animals aggregating together for social reasons. Zebrafish may shoal for foraging reasons, social reasons, or to avoid predators. Zebrafish also exhibit a behavior called schooling. Schooling is a more synchronized way of swimming as a defense mechanism to avoid predators. Schooling occurs when fish swim in same direction in a group.
Zebrafish also exhibit dominant, submissive relationships. Dominant fish stay towards the top of tank, submissive hang around bottom of tank more often.
sinking, increased startle responses, stereotypic swimming
Feed aggression is common among groups. Enrichment items such as igloos, artificial plants, lily pads give the submissive animals shelter in case of aggression.
fully aquatic, nocturnal, filter feeders, sit motionless at the top or bottom of substrates
Male xenopus frogs will establish dominant submissive hierarchy. The dominant male makes the first breeding call to the females.
Feed aggression is common among groups. Enrichment items such as PVC pipes artificial plants, lily pads give the submissive animals shelter to decrease aggression.
Enrichment items that promote shelter, and floating such as igloos, lily pads, small caves, PVC pipes, and, and artificial plants.
Featured studies related to refinement, enrichment, handling, behavior management, and training techniques.